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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 

CIRCULAR 297 

October, 1925 

A SURVEY OF BEEKEEPING IN CALIFORNIA 

G. H. VANSELL 

AND 

THE HONEYBEE AS A POLLINIZER 

E. E. DeONG 



A study of apiculture in the state of California has been made in 
order to determine the present conditions, possibilities, and needs of 
the business of beekeeping, with special reference to the problems 
confronting the beekeeper at the present time. This circidar is 
intended to summarize the status of the industry in this state for the 
guidance of the beginner or of the beekeeper from outside the state. 

PRESENT CONDITIONS 

The diversity of the climatic conditions of California renders it 
impossible to make satisfactory general statements regarding honey 
production in the state. Some localities are entirely unsuited to bee- 
keeping. Others, such as parts of Inyo and Modoc counties, have a 
long season of nectar flow and produce a white honey, while still 
others, such as the San Francisco Bay Region, have a comparatively 
short season and the honey is more colored. There are marked local 
variations in the season of nectar flow which have been utilized by 
Californian beekeepers, who have introduced a migratory form of 
the industry entirely new to most beekeepers of the eastern and 
southern United States. 

As the state has developed, certain factors have changed radically 
the established system of beekeeping. The increase of introduced 
plants such as the orange, alfalfa, and eucalyptus has added materially 
to the nectar flow ; some native sources of nectar have been reduced ; 
and the advent and wide dissemination of bee diseases have so increased 



2 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

the time required for the care of bees that honey production is no 
longer a profitable side issue for the fruit grower or general farmer 
but has become the single enterprise of a specialist. 

California has perhaps more "one-crop farmers" than any other 
state. This affords an excellent opportunity to the beekeeper who 
wishes to rent his bees to the orchardist, gardener or seed grower. 
The problem of wintering bees, which is one of much difficulty in 
most states, is not very serious in California, for the winter climate 
in the valley floors and foothills is milder than that of most states. 
Also the consumption of stores (loss in weight) during the winter is 
but slight in most parts of the state. During January and February, 
the major part of the so-called winter season, eucalyptus, manzanita, 
and other plants yield nectar, which the bees are able to gather in 
favored spots. 

PRESENT STATUS OF HONEY PRODUCTION 

Although California generally produces more honey than any other 
state, this is to be accounted for in part by her great size. The follow- 
ing table lists a few of the states with the area, number of colonies, 
and honey production of each in a single year, arranged in order of 
production per square mile of area. The recorded production for 
California varies from 16,000,000 pounds (1916) to 1,000,000 pounds 
(1904).* 



New York. 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 
Tennessee.. 
Kentucky... 
California.. 

Texas 

Ohio 

Colorado... 

Missouri 

Michigan... 



Honey pro- 
duced 1919 
or 1920 



3,223,323 
2,840,025 
2,676,683 
1,969,425 
1,604,519 
5,501,236 
5,041,236 

835,894 
2,483,950 
1,220,611 

416,959 



Number 




Pounds 


of 


Area in 


per 


colonies 


sq. miles 


colony t 


127,858 


47,620 


25 


138,419 


55,620 


20 


107,646 


54,450 


20 


191,098 


41,750 


10 


156,889 


40,000 


10 


180,719 


155,980 


30 


232,195 


262,290 


21 


105,675 


40,760 


7 


63,253 


103,645 


30 


157,678 


68,735 


8 


93,348 


58,915 


4 



Pounds 

per 
sq. mile 



(17 
51 
49 
40 
40 
35 
26 
25 
24 
17 
7 



* The recorded production probably represents less than 50 per cent of the 
actual. 

t The average production per colony for the United States as a whole during 
the years 1899 to 1909 (U.S. Census) was 10 pounds. 



Circ. 297] 



A SURVEY OF BEEKEEPING IN CALIFORNIA 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF HIVE BEES IN CALIFORNIA 

Bees are to be found, at least in favored spots, in every county in 
California. The United States Census records for 1920 give the 
number of colonies in the state as 180,719. The accompanying map 
indicates the distribution by counties irrespective of locations in the 
counties, and shows only the comparative distribution in the state. 
It is well known that there are many more colonies than those recorded. 



County 

Alameda 

Alpine 

Amador 



Colonies 

586 

2 

374 

Butte o 789 

Calaveras '. 418 

Colusa 1,324 

Contra Costa 725 

Del Norte 147 

Eldorado 881 

Fresno 11,064 

Glenn 1,397 

Humboldt 1,688 

Imperial 14,998 

Inyo 4,602 

Kern 4,583 

Kings 3,883 

Lake 424 

Lassen 1,058 

Los Angeles 18,817 

Madera 919 

Marin 75 

Mariposa 67 

Mendocino 1,068 

Merced 6,568 

Modoc 1,069 

Mono 100 

Monterey 3,224 

Napa 544 

Nevada 199 



County Colonies 

Orange 5,447 

Placer 896 

Plumas 47 

Riverside 17,014 

Sacramento 1,827 

San Benito 539 

San Bernardino 13,186 

San Diego 19,012 

San Francisco 

San Joaquin 3,177 

San Luis Obispo 1,694 

San Mateo 161 

Santa Barbara 1,039 

Santa Clara 3,275 

Santa Cruz 506 

Shasta 1,182 

Sierra 118 

Siskiyou 2,353 

Solano 787 

Sonoma 964 

Stanislaus 3,485 

Sutter 1,397 

Tehama 1,655 

Trinity 163 

Tulare 6,342 

Tuolumne 280 

Ventura 7,272 

Yolo 3,168 

Yuba 140 



Data from Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920, Vol. VI, part 3, 
pp. 350-355. 

The six leading honey producing counties in the state, to judge 
from the reported production in 1919, are: Imperial (667,676 
pounds), San Bernardino (536,937), Los Angeles (519,019), San 
Diego (480,165), Riverside (480,016), and Fresno (217,370). Area 
being considered, Orange County ranks near the top of the list some 
years, which means that Orange County has a very high yield to the 
colony when conditions are favorable. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA — EXPERIMENT STATION 



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SI#T E R S « D E [ 
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ties km 



Tliis map indicates the distribution of bees in California. Each dot represents 
one thousand colonies or a fraction thereof. 



ClRC. 297] A SURVEY OF BEEKEEPING IN CALIFORNIA 5 

EACES OF BEES 

All common hive bees in the United States belong to a single species 
Apis mellifica. There are, however, several varieties of this species 
which are commonly spoken of as races. They interbreed freely, and 
it is the exception to find a race of bees which is not somewhat crossed 
with another. All our hive bees have been imported from other 
countries. The commonest races of honey bees present in North 
America today are the following :* Italian, German or black, 
Carniolan, Cyprian, and Caucasian. 

Among beekeepers there are ardent supporters of all these varieties. 
Most beekeepers, however, prefer the Italian bees, of which there are 
several types. The Carniolans perhaps rank second in popularity. 
The following brief statements indicate the colors and characteristics 
of the five races named. 

Italian. — The Italian strains were imported from Italy. The 
various types of Italian bees are rather distinctive in color, which 
is the basis of differentiation between the leather colored three banded, 
the five banded, etc. This color variation character is quite noticeable 
in the several parts of Italy. Roughly, the color becomes progressively 
lighter toward the south. The bees of Sicily are decidedly light yellow 
in color. The most popular strain in the United States today is the 
three-banded or leather-colored. The Goldens are very pretty and 
are usually gentle, but the experience of many beekeepers tends to 
show that they are often not such good producers of honey as some of 
the other strains. 

The Italians in general are fairly prolific and are quite resistant 
to European foulbrood. They winter well, are good producers, and 
are gentler than many races. 

Carniolan. — The Carniolans came originally from Carniola, in 
Austria. They are large, blackish bees with bands of silver white 
hairs on the hind margins of the abdominal segments. This combin- 
ation makes them appear gray. They are very gentle, extremely 
prolific, and winter well. The rapidity with which they increase 
leads to excessive swarming when abundant room for brood and 
storage is not provided during the swarming season. 

A heavy demand for queens of a Carniolan-Italian cross has been 
manifested in recent years. Many of these queens are sold to Nevada 
beekeepers and others at high altitudes where the wintering problem 
is somewhat difficult and the spring is late. 

* It is no longer permissible under ordinary circumstances to bring in foreign 
bees. United States quarantine laws were enacted to prevent the introduction 
of Isle of Wight disease. 



b UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

German. — The German bees are small and black. The "Spanish 
Bee ' ' of California is thought to be this same old German type which 
was brought into the state in early days by the Spanish Fathers. 
These bees are often vicious with both sting and mandibles. They are 
more susceptible to injury by the wax moth than the Italians. The 
"blacks" are particularly subject to the European foulbrood disease. 
Most beekeepers have attempted to abandon this race, yet traces of 
them are still prevalent in many parts of the state. The German- 
Italian hybrid is a very good combination, having enough spirit to 
protect the colony effectively against tramps or marauding skunks, 
etc. 

Cyprian. — Cyprians are of a bright orange tinge, smaller in size 
than the Italians, and with a pointed abdomen, the forward part of 
which is decidedly yellowish orange. They are not readily subdued 
by smoke and sting viciously. American beekeepers have tried these 
bees thoroughly. Their working ability is not questioned and they 
are very prolific, but they are being abandoned on account of the 
difficulty of handling them. 

Caucasian. — The Caucasians, introduced into America from the 
northern parts of the Caucasus, are largely of the gray type. Some 
of them are yellowish, resembling the Italian. These bees are very 
gentle, although they protect their hives well against robber bees. 
They are very prolific, and in the main good bees. The tendency to 
gather and use propolis lavishly and to build burr combs is quite 
noticeable. Their susceptibility to European foulbrood is a very bad 
feature which tends to limit their use in California. Despite these 
two drawbacks, many of them are in use todaj^, especially in the south- 
eastern United States. 

Other races of hive bees not used in California that may be men- 
tioned in passing are the Syrian, Egyptian, Grecian, and African. 

Dr. E. F. Phillips, formerly Apiculturist in the Bureau of 
Entomology of the United States Department of Agriculture, says 
concerning the best races of bees : ' ' The question is hard to answer. 
For comb honey production the German, Carniolan, and Caucasian 
races have the advantage of capping the honey white, but the German 
bees are especially subject to European foulbrood, Carniolans swarm 
excessively (especially in comb honey production), and Caucasians 
propolize badly. Without going any further into the merits and 
demerits of the various races, it may be well to give the almost unani- 
mous verdict of American beekeepers, which is in favor of the Italian 
race. It is probably true that the test cannot be considered as free 



ClRC. 297] A SURVEY OF BEEKEEPING IN CALIFORNIA 7 

from prejudice, but the decision was made years ago and no special 
reason has been presented for changing it. Since this race became 
popular, it has been carefully bred, and it is easier to get good stock 
of this race than of any other in the United States. It was the first 
race brought into this country in the effort to improve on the early 
introduced black bees, and proved so vastly superior that it soon took 
a firm hold on American beekeepers. It is doubtful whether any other 
race will be accepted as better, or even as good, by the majority of 
beekeepers and certainly no markedly better race has been tried in 
this country." 

BEE AND QUEEN EAISING 

There are over two hundred apiaries in the state which specialize 
in queen rearing. Their total estimated output is more than half a 
million queens annually. No figures are available for the production 
of package bees but thousands of pounds of Italian and Carniolan 
workers are marketed each year. These are sold to furnish nuclei 
for new queens or to strengthen depleted colonies. Many queens and 
bees are shipped to points outside of the state, going particularly to 
Idaho, Nevada and Canada. Also many queens, mostly superior 
breeding stock, are brought into California from other states each 
year. The usual practice in queen rearing in California is to start 
the queen cells above a strong "queen-right" colony (a normal colony 
with an accepted queen) over a queen excluder. Both nuclei and full- 
sized standard frame hives are used for mating queens. Very few 
locations are ideally situated for queen rearing operations because 
the production of good queens requires hot nights and a superabund- 
ance of nectar and pollen over a long period. The absence of queen 
enemies (dragon flies, king birds, fly catchers) is desirable. 

CLASSES AND KINDS OF HONEY 

Honey is sold largely according to color and body. The thick, 
light-colored honeys command the highest prices as a rule. This 
market condition has grown up through long years, but in many 
ways the preference for light-colored honeys is unfortunate as these 
honeys are by no means always of the best flavor. By far the greater 
part of the commercial honey produced in California is extracted. 
Water white, white, light amber, amber, and dark amber are the com^ 
monest classes of extracted honey. Profitable comb honey production 
in the United States is generally limited to areas where there is an 
intense nectar flow, and where the flora is productive of a light-colored 



8 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

honey. In many countries the production of comb honey is not so 
limited because of a preference for the darker honeys. Comb honey 
grades are based upon such qualities as color, weight, size, and attrac- 
tiveness. Chunk honey, which is so commonly marketed in the south- 
eastern states, is rarely produced here. 

A candied honey market is being developed rapidly. Certain 
kinds of honeys, alfalfa, blue curl, etc., granulate to a suitable con- 
sistence for slicing into bars, while others become semi-solid like 
peanut butter. Storage with sharp temperature changes hastens 
granulation. Honey in this form is used mainly to spread on bread 
or crackers in making sandwiches. 

Since this state produces more honey than it consumes, many 
beekeepers fear overproduction, but the world demand for honey has 
not yet been satisfied. The imports of honey to the United States 
usually exceed the exports. The annual per capita consumption of 
sweets in the United States is between 80 and 100 pounds, and is 
increasing, while the average consumption of honey is but 2y 2 pounds. 
Honey is a sugar and can be used in the place of granulated sugar for 
cooking. It makes delicious candy, cookies, cakes, etc. The many 
uses to which honey may be put have not been sufficiently impressed 
upon the housewives of the country; in fact only a few use honey at 
all. However, when once tried almost everybody likes it. Advertising 
campaign of various sorts have proved to be of service in bringing 
this food into the homes of new users. 



WAX 

Beeswax comes only from the wax glands of the bee ; it cannot be 
manufactured artificially. Old hive combs melted down constitute 
the chief source of beeswax in the United States today. Many bee- 
keepers are rather careless with their old combs and do not obtain the 
full amount of wax possible. The domestic supply of wax is insuffi- 
cient to supply the commercial demand, so the United States imports 
a great quantity of beeswax to use in the many trades requiring it. 
Wax always sells readily, and brings a good price. There is no doubt 
that the wax now wasted by beekeepers of the United States if saved 
would at least double the available supply. All wax, even the small 
pieces that may be trimmed off the top bars inside of hive walls, should 
be saved. The material may be allowed to accumulate until the slack 
season and then all rendered at one time. 



ClRC. 297] A SURVEY OF BEEKEEPING IN CALIFORNIA 



PKOFITS IN BEEKEEPING 

Most individuals who commence beekeeping do so with a great 
deal of enthusiasm, much of which is induced by the advertising of 
dealers and manufacturers in beekeeping supplies. The rosy expecta- 
tions aroused are apt to occupy the mind of a beginner so thoroughly 
that the possibility of loss and disappointment is not considered. Bees, 
when properly cared for, require a great deal of time and attention, 
and here in the west there are frequent unfavorable years when the 
beekeeper will reap nothing and will even have to stand a loss. How- 
ever, much money has been made in the beekeeping industry and 
much more money will be made by proper attention to the details of 
the business. 

The yearly production of extracted honey (spring count) in Calif- 
ornia is figured from statistical records to vary from to 70 pounds 
per colony, according to the season. The average is recorded as 40 
pounds; exceptional individual colonies may run over the maximum 
amount of 70 pounds. Careful beekeepers can normally expect to get a 
yield above the indicated average. The average wholesale price received 
by the producer for all grades of (extracted) honey in California is 
approximately 7 or 8 cents a pound (1923-25). This is from % to 
x /2 the price that the consumer pays for honey. 

The amount invested in beekeeping equipment is low when com- 
pared with that put into many agricultural projects, for many suc- 
cessful beemen own no land and those with apiaries located on small 
acreages have free range over the area about their locations. Figured 
solely on the basis of capital invested, the returns appear much 
greater than in most farming projects. 

A colony of bees housed in a standard ten-frame hive can be 
purchased at present (1925) in California for from four to six 
dollars. During the recent war as much as $18.00 a colony was paid, 
but the average price over a period of years is between eight and ten 
dollars per colony. No one should think of going into apiculture as a 
business with fewer than 100 colonies; some of the men who are 
making money out of beekeeping are running between 500 and 1000 
colonies. The prospective beekeeper should provide a shop for hous- 
ing the extracting equipment, the settling tanks, wax press, comb 
sterilizer, and miscellaneous equipment and supplies. The shop should 
be large enough for storing the honey and must be bee-tight. The 
approximate cost of new equipment and housing (exclusive of bees 
and hives) need not be over $1000 for a small apiary. Unless a pros- 



10 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

pective beekeeper in California gives careful consideration to all the 
factors on which the profits of beekeeping depend, he is not likely to 
make it a financial success. 

NECTAR AND POLLEN PLANTS 

The importance of knowing the nectar producing flora is very 
evident. Beekeeping depends in the first instance entirely upon the 
presence of suitable nectar yielding plants. Plants vary in their 
utility as sources of honey with the location, altitude, soil, exposure, 
and other natural factors. Cool climates are conducive to nectar 
flow in some plants, while for others much warmer climates are 
necessary. Bees, too, are very susceptible to air temperatures, and 
work best in warm places. 

The most prominent nectar producing plants in California are 
the black, white and purple sages, the orange, alfalfa, and the star 
thistle. Alfalfa, which occurs in all irrigated and some unirrigated 
sections of the state, is undoubtedly the most reliable as a heavy 
nectar producer. The orange, which is very variable in nectar yield 
from year to year, blossoms so early that bees are often unable to 
gather the nectar on account of cool, foggy weather. The star thistle 
is a common weed which is gradually spreading over northern Calif- 
ornia. It is most abundant in the northern Sacramento valley. The 
area of the sages mentioned extends from Mt. Diablo southward along 
the coast range into Mexico. The yield from these plants is especially 
subject to sharp yearly fluctuation because they depend entirely on 
the rainfall, which is not always sufficient for luxuriant growth. 
Cotton may become important as a honey producer here, as it is 
already in the south-central United States. 

Scores of other nectar plants are of importance to the California 
beekeeper. On the basis of these the state has been divided by M. C. 
Richter,* into eleven honey regions. The general location of the 
plants, with the time of blossoming, is included in Richter's bulletin. 
Coleman's articles on "Beekeeping in our California National For- 
ests" (Western Honey Bee, February, 1921 to, January, 1922) con- 
tain a good list of honey plants of the state. Pellet's "American 
Honey Plants" (published by the American Bee Journal, Hamilton, 
Illinois) is a recent and more inclusive publication. 



* Bulletin No. 217, University of California Agricultural Experiment Station. 
(Now out of print but may be consulted at public libraries). 



ClRC. 297] A SURVEY OF BEEKEEPING IN CALIFORNIA 11 

Some of the leading nectar and pollen plants* of California are 
listed below. Not all of these plants are found in any one location 
and in some places some of them are of no value. 

Black saget Salvia mellifera 

White sage, Salvia apiana 

Certain other true sages and mints. 

Alfalfa, Medicago sativa 

Orange, Citrus aurantium 

Yellow star thistle, Centaurea solstitialis 

Certain other plants of the thistle tribe, such as the milk thistle, purple 

star thistle, tocalote (Napa thistle), etc. 
Christmas berry (Toyon), Photinia arbutifolia 
Sumacs, Bhus laurina and others. 
Mustards, Brassica nigra, etc. 

Bear clover (mountain misery), Chamaebatia foliolosa 
Deer weed (or wild alfalfa), Lotus glaber 
Elms, Ulmus spp. 

Smartweed (in swampy areas), Polygonum spp. 
Goldenrods, Solidago spp. 
Wild lilacs, Ceanothus spp. (Deer brush C. thrysiflorus, Blue blossom 

C. integerrimus, and Buck brush C. cuneatus) 
White sweet clover, Mclilotus alba and M. a. Hubamiensis 
Almond, plum, cherry, apple and certain other deciduous fruit trees 
Carpet grass, Lippia nodiflora and others 
Coffee berry, Bhamnus calif ornica 
Poison oak, Bhus diversiloba 
Cascara sagrada, Bhamnus purshiana 
Madrofia, Arbutus menziesii 

Manzanita or bearberry, Arctostaphylos manzanita and other species 
Wild buckwheat, Eriogonum fasciculatum 
Lima bean, Phascolus lunatus 
Jackass clover, Wislizcnia refracta 
Various phacelias (sheep tansy, etc.) 
Willows, Salix spp. 

California buckeye, Aesculus calif oryiica 
Red, blue and other gums, Eucalyptus spp. 
Button bush (called Willow), Ccphalanthus occidentalis 
Blue curls, Trichostema lanceolatum 
White clover, Trifolium repens. 
Various acacias, Acacia spp. 
Mesquite, Prosopis glandulosa 
Filaree, Erodium cicutarium and others 
Cultivated flowering plants (various) 
Burr clover, Medicago denticulata 
Horehound, Marrubium vulgare 



* Many specimens of the plants listed were kindly determined by Dr. W. W. 
Eobbins, Dr. E. M. Holman and Mr. H. A. Borthwick, University of California, 
t These plants are listed roughly in the order of their importance. 



12 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

Tar weeds, Hemitonia spp. 

Yellow sweet clover, Melilotus officinalis 

Certain berry blossoms. Kaspberry, loganberry, gooseberry, currants, 

blackberry and others 
Certain melon blossoms and other vines of the gourd family. Cantaloupe, 

muskmelon, watermelon, cucumber, squash, pumpkin and others 
Sun flowers (various) 

Certain oaks, Quercus lobata, Q. douglasii, Q. agri-folia, and others 
Aphid honey dew from various plants 
Certain yuccas and cacti 
Black locust, Eobinia pseudo-acacia 
Cotton, Gossypium herbacem, G. barbadense and others 

Certain plants are believed to secrete nectar or yield pollen which 
is detrimental to the honey bee. In some sections of the state, bee- 
keepers are sure that the California buckeye causes the loss of many 
colonies of bees every year, while others are just as sure that the 
buckeye is a good honey plant. In the Napa Valley, bees located but 
a few miles apart vary decidedly in their reaction to the effects of 
this plant. Possibly this discrepancy is caused by climatic conditions 
and the presence or absence of other nectars at the time of buckeye 
blooming. It is certain that many plants vary distinctly in their 
nectar secreting power, and that nectar secreted by a given plant 
varies in its physical and chemical nature with differences in soil and 
rainfall. This is especially true in California. During dry years 
when the annual vegetation dries up early bees are apt to suffer heavy 
losses while feeding on buckeye almost exclusively. The problem of 
buckeye poisoning needs more attention. 

The nectar of many plants may become toxic through the appli- 
cation of certain sprays. Bees are sometimes very thirsty and will 
drink spray adhering to any part of the plant. This habit may be 
counteracted to a certain extent by supplying abundant fresh water. 
Bees like to drink in a sunny place, protected from the wind. No 
thought is usually given to providing drinking facilities when locating 
bees for pollination purposes, but from the standpoint of poisoning by 
spray chemicals, this may easily be a factor of considerable import- 
ance. 

DISEASE 

Disease is making alarming inroads upon the beekeeping industry 
in California. American foulbrood and European foulbrood are now 
causing serious losses in bees and honey crops annually. Paralysis, 
sac brood, dysentry, "buckeye poisoning," and spray poisoning are 
also causing losses. Government and state experiment station bulle- 



ClRC. 297] a SURVEY OF BEEKEEPING IN CALIFORNIA 13 

tins treating of the symptoms and treatment of bee diseases are 
available upon request, and should be consulted by the beekeepers 
for more detailed accounts. (Samples of suspected brood will be 
diagnosed without charge by the Bureau of Entomology, U.S.D.A., 
Washington, D.C., or the Branch of the College of Agriculture, Davis, 
California.) 

Alcohol-formalin and other mixtures are now being used to dis- 
infect brood combs infected with American foulbrood so that destruc- 
tion of these combs is no longer necessary. Much care is required in 
the disinfection of combs by these methods and unless the beekeeper 
is prepared to proceed thoroughly the process is a waste of energy 
and money. 

The California apiary inspection law,* which makes it possible 
for any county to have a bee inspector appointed upon a petition of ten 
beekeepers, is intended to help prevent the importation of disease 
from other states or counties and to compel the negligent beekeeper 
to clean up his apiary. The bee industry in California is important 
enough to warrant a bee inspector, for at least part of the year, in 
every county. 

WAXMOTH 

The larvae of certain moths (Galleria mellonella and Achroia 
grissclla) destroy combs by burrowing through them, constructing 
tunnels of silk and eating the wax. They do not eat honey. While, 
as is well known, these insects can do no damage in a strong, healthy, 
well managed colony of bees, they are recognized as an enemy by 
California beekeepers. Because the climate of California is mild, 
the wax moth has opportunity to work for a large part of the year. 
The loss to the industry, through its depredations, amounts in the 
aggregate to a large sum. Extracting combs in storage are destroyed 
by thousands every year and the combs in the hives of weakened 
colonies are often a total loss before the work of the moth is discovered. 
Better beekeeping will almost eliminate the loss from weakened 
colonies, and proper storing with paradichlorobenzene gas will stop 
the destruction of stored combs. The use of good Italian stock in 
preference to black bees will help to maintain the colonies in strong 
condition at all times. 



* A copy of this law may be obtained from the Division of Entomology, Uni- 
versity of California, Branch of the College of Agriculture, Davis. 



14 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

NEEDS OF BEEKEEPING INDUSTRY IN CALIFORNIA 

STUDY OF LITEEATUKE 

The importance to the industry of beekeepers owning and studying 
literature can hardly be overestimated. A number of bulletins and 
books are listed in a supplement to this paper dealing with the struc- 
ture, habits and care of bees. Every beekeeper should subscribe to 
one or more of the current journals dealing with the subject of bees. 

BETTER ORGANIZATION FOR CO-ORDINATION OF INTERESTS 

Cooperative selling must be adopted if all the producers are to 
receive a fair price. A better general spirit of cooperation is necessary 
in the beekeeping industry in this state. Non-commercial county and 
regional organizations of an educational nature affiliated into a strong 
state association seems a logical plan upon which to build a cooperative 
structure. Under the recent conditions of discouraging crops and 
prices, some even of the stronger county associations have almost 
ceased to exist. "Get together and stick" is conceded to be the best 
method of improvement. Beekeepers may well follow the example 
of the hive by placing the interest of the whole group above that of 
any single individual. There are now, perhaps, plenty of organiza- 
tions for all beekeepers to be included in the lists of membership. The 
need is for better rather than for more organizations. 

The marketing of a product after production is apparently coming 
to be the largest problem in agriculture. This is very true of the honey 
industry. The fear of overproduction of honey will no longer exist 
when the problem of marketing is solved, in which case the producer 
will be reasonably sure of receiving a price for his honey that will 
insure a profit, and, at the same time, the consumer will not be over- 
charged. 

SUMMARY 

California has a large number of bees. The pollen and nectar 
producing flora of the state is abundant and the honey is of the high- 
est quality. The actual returns received by the average beekeeper are 
not in keeping with the optimistic reports that one so often hears. 
Beekeeping, however, is a business which, when well managed, gives 
an excellent return on the capital and labor invested. 

Since it is impossible to change the nature of the honey bee, 
improvements can be made only by changes in the methods of the 



Circ. 297] 



A SURVEY OF BEEKEEPING IN CALIFORNIA 



15 



beekeepers and in the methods of marketing their crop. Improvements 
in actual beekeeping will be possible when the habits and the behavior 
of bees are better understood. The beekeeper who possesses informa- 
tion as to how his bees will respond to any particular environmental 
stimulus will be enabled so to arrange his plans as to take the fullest 
advantage of any situation which may arise. 

A careful study of the beekeeping industry in California and 
interviews with beekeepers and those who are striving to introduce 
better methods of distribution in other branches of agriculture, 
indicate that the plan which gives most promise for meeting 1 the need 
is through the personal contact of an extension worker. 



SUPPLEMENT 
BULLETINS FOE FEEE DISTRIBUTION 

The following bulletins may be obtained free from the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Bees. 

Honey and Its Uses in the Home. 
Outdoor Wintering of Bees. 
Transferring Bees to Modern Hives. 

Control of European Foulbrood. 

Preparation of Bees for Outdoor Wintering. 

Wintering Bees in Cellars. 

Commercial Comb Honey Production. 

Control of American Foulbrood. 

Swarm Control. 

Beekeeping in the Clover Eegion. 

Beekeeping in the Buckwheat Eegion. 

Beekeeping in the Tulip-tree Eegion. 
Alfalfa. 

Sweet Clover, Growing the Crop. 
Sweet Clover, Utilization. 
Sweet Clover Harvesting and Trashing the Seed Crop. 

Sweet Clover on Corn Belt Farms. 

Buckwheat. 

Alsike Clover. 



Farmers ' 


Bulletin 447. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 653. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 695. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 961. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 975. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 1012. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 1014. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 1039. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 1084. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 1098. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 1215. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 1216. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 1222. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 559. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 797. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 820. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 836. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 1005. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 1062. 


Farmers ' 


Bulletin 1151. 



BULLETINS FOE SALE BY THE SUPEELNTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

The following publications are not available in the Department of 
Agriculture, but may be purchased at the prices indicated. Remit- 
tances should be made to the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C, by postal money order, 



16 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

Express Order, or New York draft. If currency is sent, it will be at 
the sender's risk. Postage stamps, defaced or worn coins, foreign 
coins and uncertified checks will not be accepted. 

Dept. Bull. 431. Sacbrood 10 cents 

Dept. Bull. 685. Honeybees and Honey Production in the United 

States 10 cents 

Dept. Bull. 780. Nosema Disease 10 cents 

Dept. Bull. 804. A Study of the Behavior of European Foulbrood 

of Bees in the Colony 5 cents 

Dept. Bull. 809. American Foulbrood 15 cents 

Dept. Bull. 810. European Foulbrood 10 cents 

Dept. Bull. 988. Heat Production of Honeybees in Winter 5 cents 

JOURNALS PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED STATES:* 

American Bee Journal, Hamilton, Illinois. 

Gleanings in Bee Culture, Medina, Ohio. 

Beekeeper's Review, 1401 N. Chestnut St. Lansing, Michigan. 

Beekeeper 's Item, New Braunf els,, Texas. 

The Western Honeybee, 2823 E. Fourth St., Los Angeles, California. 

The California Honey Bowl, Riverside, California. 

Dixie Beekeeper, Waycross, Georgia. 

Bees and Honey, Seattle, Washington. 

BOOKS OF INTEREST TO BEEKEEPERS: 

These may be obtained from any dealer in beekeeping supplies, 
from publishers of bee journals, and from general book dealers. 

ABC and XYZ of Bee Culture, A. I. and E. R, Root. 

Beekeeping, E. F. Phillips. 

Langstroth on the Hive and Honey Bee, revised by C. P. Dadant. 

Fifty Years Among the Bees, C. C. Miller. 

A Thousand Answers to Beekeeping Questions, C. C. Miller. 

Scientific Queen Rearing, G. M. Doolittlo. 

Advanced Bee Culture, W. Z. Hutchinson. 

Productive Beekeeping, F. C. Pellet. 

American Honey Plants, F. C. Pellet. 

Beekeeping in the South, Kenneth Hawkins. 

The Honey Bee, Mrs. A. B. Comstock. 

BEE SUPPLIES 

There are some 15 manufacturers of bee supplies in the United 
States. The equipment of no one company can be specially recom- 
mended, but a list of manufacturers and dealers will be supplied upon 
request. 



* There are 165 beekeeping publications in existance on the earth today. 



ClRC. 297] a SURVEY OF BEEKEEPING IN CALIFORNIA 17 



THE HONEYBEE AS A POLLINIZER 

E. E. deONG 



Insects are necessary for the pollination of most deciduous fruit 
trees excepting certain nuts. Horticulturists who have studied the 
pollination of fruits emphasize the danger of relying upon self-fertiliz- 
ation, particularly when a single type is grown in large areas. Under 
most conditions dependence must be placed on the aid of insects and 
especially of the honeybee for pollination. 1 We are now realizing some- 
thing of the possibilities of this insect structurally so well adapted 
for working among flowers. Certainly it would seem that this insect 
is worthy of more study, and possibly when its real value is known 
it will be found that the honeybee should be esteemed more for its 
pollinizing value than for the honey and wax which it produces even 
though these are valued at millions of dollars annually. 

Of all the insects that visit flowers, bees are the best adapted by 
the structure of the body to act as carriers of pollen. The body and 
legs are covered with heavy, stiff hairs which are branched or feather- 
like. These catch and hold the pollen grains until they are brushed 
into a "pollen basket" on the hind leg. In this carrier the load of 
pollen is transported to the hive. However, all bees are not of equal 
value as pollinizers as some of them do not visit all types of flowers 1 
and others may even restrict themselves to a single species of plant. 
The honeybee and the bumblebee, however, visit almost all flowers 
with little restriction except that they evidently confine themselves 
to a single species on any one trip. 

We have many native species of bees such as bumblebees, carpen- 
ter-bees, leaf cutters and others, but only in rare instances are any 
of these active during the early spring, and then only in very restricted 
numbers. The bumblebee is one of the earliest of the native bees to 
feed in the spring, but the entire colony, except the queen, perishes 
during the winter. In the spring the whole responsibility of rebuild- 



i The following California Experiment Station bulletins giving details of 
experiments on pollination of fruits are now available in the files of public 
libraries: Bulletins 274 and 291 (second report, The Common Honeybee as an 
Agent in Prune Pollination; Bulletin 306, Almond Pollination. There are a 
limited number, available upon request at this date of publication, of Bulletin 
346, Almond Pollination, and Bulletin 352, Further Experiments in Plum 
Pollination. 



18 UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

ing the colony devolves upon the queen. She lays and incubates the 
eggs, seven to sixteen in number, feeds the newly hatched larvae and 
only after the first brood matures can she give her strength entirely 
to brood rearing. By fall the colony may have grown to a size of from 
one to five hundred individuals. Certain of the mining bees, Halictus, 
which nest in the sides of cliffs, have one or two generations a year. 
The spring generation consists of hibernating, fertilized females 
which give rise to a summer generation. The leaf-cutting bee, Mega- 
chile spp., apparently has but one generation a year and includes but 
a small number of individuals. The carpenter-bee, Ceratina dupla, 
has two broods a year which are very restricted in numbers. 

These examples are typical of the life history of our common 
native species of bees that have from one to five or six-brood cycles 
annually, while the number of individuals range from a score to a 
few hundred. Comparing this with the honeybee's record of from 
twelve to fifteen brood cycles 2 a year, all the descendants of a single 
queen, which may reach a hundred thousand bees annually, or more, 
we realize the wonderful reproductive powers of this insect. It 
should also be noted that instead of the death of all the workers, the 
winter's mortality among honeybees is usually very slight. From 
five hundred to sixty thousand may be present in a single colony at 
the close of winter and two or more brood cycles may be reared in 
the spring before many of the fruit trees bloom. 

A comparison of the flight activity of the honeybee with the bloom- 
ing period of our chief deciduous fruits is given in Table I. The 
flight records of two years were made at or within a few miles of the 
University of California campus. 

A study of Table I reveals the intimate relationship between 
meteorological factors and the activity of the honeybee. Temperature 
is usually considered the most significant factor but at the range pre- 
vailing during the blooming period of deciduous fruits, the degree of 
cloudiness and rain is more important. It will be noted that on only 
one day, viz., March 5th, did a low temperature (48° F.) stop nearly 
all flight on a clear day. Rain checked all flight, however, on eleven 
days although the temperature ranged from 52° to 70° F. Such 
reactions to temperature and rain are not confined to the honeybee 
but are general among pollinizing insects. It will also be noted that 
the bees showed a high degree of activity on partly cloudy days unless 



2 By brood cycles is meant the time of development for the worker from the 
egg to the adult bee, in any group of brood cells. This time is given at twenty- 
one days. 



TABLE I 

Comparison of the Flight Activity of the Honeybee and the Blooming 

Period of Fruits ,a with Meteorological Data 



Dates 


e3*. 




a 


Feb. 15 


60° 


16 


65 


17 


55 


19 


68 


20 


52 


21 


58 


23 


61 


24 


52 


25 


54 


27 


68 


28 


60 


Mar. 2 


62 


3 


55 


5 


48 


6 


52 


7 


54 


8 


60 


11 


58 


13 


60 


14 


50 


15 


66 


17 


70 


24 


62 


25 


78 


26 


80 


27 


81 


28 


81 


29 


62 


30 


60 


31 


61 


Apr. 1 


58 


2 


54 


3 


54 


4 


52 


5 


58 


6 


59 


7 


61 


8 


56 


9 


66 


10 


58 


11 


61 


12 


67 


13 


65 


14 


70 


15 


81 


16 


63 


17 


60 



Remarks 



Num- 
ber 
enter- 
ng and 
leaving 
hive per 
minute 



Period of bloom 



Hazy 

Clear, calm 

Part cloudy, calm 

Warm, part clear, north 

wind 

Part cloudy, bright, cool 

breeze 

Hazy, light wind 

Part cloudy, warm, foggy, 

weak sun 

Part cloudy, cold, foggy 

Clear, warm breeze 

Hazy, warm, breeze 

Clear, cool, breeze, N. wind 

Rain, cool 

Clear, wi ndy 

Clear, cold 

Part cloudy, cool 

Clear, cool 

Clear, cool, breeze 

Clear, cool, wind 

Cloudy, cool, breeze 

Clear, cool, wind 

Clear, warm 

Clear, warm, breeze 

Clear, warm, breeze 

Hot, dry, clear 

Hot, dry, clear 

Hot, dry, clear 

Hot, dry, clear 

Cool, dry, clear, part cloudy 
Cool, dry, clear, part cloudy 
Cool, dry, clear, part cloudy 

Cool, rain 

Cool, rain 

Cool, rain 

Cool, rain 

Cool, rain 

Cool, rain, part cloudy 

Cool, part cloudy 

Hazy, cool 

Rain 

Rain, part cloudy 

Medium, part cloudy 

Clear and warm 

Rain, part cloudy 



Rain, part cloudy 
Clear, windy 



Part cloudy 
Rain 



14 
25 
65 

59 

26 
33 

89 
4 
70 
68 
24 
None 
57 
4 
37 
40 
78 
63 
145 
42 
Un- 
count- 
able 



First 



None 



40 

32 

None 

77 
Un- 
count- 
able 
None 
Un- 
count- 
able 
70 
None 



Full 



Late 



First 



Last 



First 



Full 



Late 
Last 



First 



First 



Full 



Full 



Late 



Last 



Full 
Late 



First 



First 



Full 



Late 



First 



Full 



Full 



Late 



Last 



Last 



Last 



3 The phenological data were compiled by members of the Division of Pomology at Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia. 

* Temperature taken at 1:30 P.M. 



20 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

the temperature dropped to about 52° F. Such activity in cloudy 
weather or when the sunshine is irregular, is necessary for successful 
pollination since this is the prevailing type of weather during the 
blooming period of deciduous fruits in the greater part of California. 
This activity will be increased if the hives are placed in favorable posi- 
tions where the sunshine will strike the hive entrance as this will 
stimulate the bees to make flights at every opportunity. 

The superiority of the honeybee as a pollinizer is due to several 
causes: first, the workers do not die in the fall or early winter as do 
those of the bumblebee and many other species; second, the honeybee 
winters in an active condition instead of being dormant or resting in 
the egg or pupal stage as do most bees ; third, the honeybee is the only 
insect pollinizer which can be distributed as desired in the orchard; 
fourth, it is possible to increase the number of field bees (those gather- 
ing nectar and pollen) or "build up" a colony so that a large number 
will be available very early in the spring. The experienced beekeeper 
has long recognized the fact that a heavy flow of nectar stimulates 
egg-laying on the part of the queen. The same activity may be se- 
cured in the early spring even before there is a natural flow of nectar 
by feeding sugar syrup. Hence, by properly timing the giving of 
extra food, egg-laying will begin sufficiently early so that the increase 
in the number of bees will be just before the blooming season. 

MANAGEMENT OF BEES IN THE ORCHARD 

The orchardist's interest in bees is different from that of the pro- 
fessional beekeeper. The latter is seeking to produce, in large quan- 
tities, beeswax and honey of a desired flavor, while the pollinizing 
value of the bee is secondary. For such work it is necessary to 
increase to a maximum the number of field bees in the colony at a time 
of the year when there is the heaviest flow of nectar of the desired 
type. The orchardist's viewpoint is entirely different, the bee to 
him is a pollinizing agent which is of value in the assistance it gives 
in setting a crop of fruit, the gathering of nectar is of minor import- 
ance. In fact the nectar secreted by many of our deciduous orchard 
trees does not make a marketable honey but one which is of value only 
as food for the bees. 

Bees that are to be used for spring pollination work require, in 
many parts of the state, abundant food and protection against cold 
during the winter. Brood-rearing should, if possible, be continued 
until late fall and then twenty to thirty pounds of honey left in each 
colony or even more for very large colonies and in mountainous regions. 



ClRC. 297] A SURVEY OF BEEKEEPING IN CALIFORNIA 21 

A well-filled standard frame is usually considered as weighing five 
pounds. Weak colonies should be united and the inferior queens killed. 
The brood-chamber may also be reduced to conserve the heat of the 
cluster. If insufficient food is allowed, the field bees are forced to work 
at every opportunity possible during the winter which leads to a reduc- 
tion in their number. Colonies which have exhausted their stores should 
be supplied with more honey or given a thin sugar syrup made of two 
parts of granulated sugar to one part of water. For stimulative feed- 
ing in early spring, the formula is changed to one part of sugar to 
two parts of water by volume. One ounce of tartaric acid is added to 
forty or fifty pounds of sugar while the solution is still hot; this 
prevents granulation and changes the sugar to a more digestible form. 
Honey gathered from orchard trees, especially the stone fruits, is 
usually of poor flavor and may be stored for winter feeding. 

THE OECHAED SITE 

For orchards of small or moderate size, the bees can usually be 
located in one apiary as they readily fly a distance of one-half mile. 
For very large orchards, one or more out-apiaries may be advantage- 
ous. A central location is more desirable than a location on one side. 
Consideration should always be given to prevailing winds and any 
considerable elevation. The loaded bee traveling homeward should 
be going with the prevailing wind and downward rather than up, 
otherwise, many will fail to reach the hive and if compelled to remain 
out over night will probably be chilled to death. A sheltered place 
should be chosen, preferably with a windbreak of bushes or a wall on 
the north side so as to break heavy winds and yet leave the hives 
exposed to the sun. Hive entrances should be faced so that the sun 
will strike them at least through the middle of the day; tall weeds 
and grass should be kept down in front of the hives. A constant sup- 
ply of fresh, pure water is necessary and if deep containers are used, 
floats such as small boards or slices of cork should be kept in the 
water. If an arsenical or nicotine spray is applied to the orchard, 
especially in dry weather, it is best to keep the bees confined during 
as much of the spraying season as possible. Bees will endure pro- 
longed confinement at low temperatures if pure food is available. 
If the weather is sufficiently warm, however, so that they are active 
in the hive, then confinement for more than one day may prove dan- 
gerous. Under these conditions, the length of time that the hives 
are closed should be left to the judgment of a professional beekeeper. 
The question of suitable sprays for the orchard, particularly arsen- 



22 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION 

icals, has long been a point of controversy between the orchardist 
and the beekeeper and a definite policy concerning- this should be 
agreed upon before entering into contracts. 

The number of colonies of bees necessary for good pollination 
work varies with the strength of the colony and the size of the 
orchard. Usually one colony (hive) to the acre is considered suffi- 
cient. 

SHALL THE OECHAEDIST OWN BEES? 

There are three ways open to the orchardist whereby he may 
secure sufficient bees for the needs of his orchard: (1) rental from a 
professional beekeeper; (2) employment of a trained beekeeper to 
care for bees owned or leased; (3) ownership and personal care. 

The first method is one that has been commonly practiced. The 
bees are placed in the orchard during the blooming season and then 
moved elsewhere. Such an arrangement is advantageous in many 
respects to both parties ; the orchardist is relieved of the responsibility 
of caring for the apiary throughout the year, while the beekeeper 
receives a small income long before he could normally expect returns 
in honey production. 

The employment of a trained beekeeper by one or by a group 
of orchardists is now being favored. One experienced man can care 
for two or three hundred colonies or even more with a little extra 
help during swarming time, during outbreaks of disease, or should 
there be any considerable surplus of honey that is desired to harvest. 
Under this plan the ownership of the bees may be in the hands of the 
orchardist or cartetaker. It should be noted that this plan is designed 
for regions where the production of honey is subordinated to pollin- 
ation work, and hence does not require the shifting of bees to regions 
of nectar bearing plants. 

The ownership and care of bees by the orchardist is fraught with 
considerable danger unless he is familiar with the work. Bees are 
subject to very serious contagious diseases especially in the larval 
stage and on account of the roving disposition of the field bees and 
their tendency to rob weak colonies the infection may be disseminated 
among clean apiaries. Such diseases thrive in poorly kept apiaries 
with weak queens, and only constant vigilance and vigorous measures 
will check them. An orchardist with little time to spare may neglect 
his apiary at a critical time either during the outbreak of disease or 
the swarming season, and then find that it is too weak for self- 
support and only a menace to the neighborhood. 



STATION PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION 



BULLETINS 



No. No. 

253. Irrigation and Soil Conditions in the 357. 

Sierra Nevada Foothills, California. 

261. Melaxuma of the Walnut, "Juglans 

regia." 358. 

262. Citrus Diseases of Florida and Cuba 

Compared with Those of California. 359. 

263. Size Grades for Ripe Olives. 361. 
268. Growing and Grafting Olive Seedlings. 

273. Preliminary Report on Kearney Vine- 362. 

yard Experimental Drain. 363. 

275. The Cultivation of Belladonna in Cali- 

fornia. 364. 

276. The Pomegranate. 

277. Sudan Grass 365. 
278.' Grain Sorghums. 366. 

279. Irrigation of Rice in California. 

280. Irrigation of Alfalfa in the Sacramento 367. 

Valley. 
283. The Olive Insects of California. 368. 

285. The Milk Goat in California. 

294. Bean Culture in California. 369. 

304. A Study of the Effects of Freezes on 370. 

Citrus in California. 371. 

310. Plum Pollination. 

312. Mariout Barley. 372. 

313. Pruning Young Deciduous Fruit Trees. 

319. Caprifigs and Caprification. 373. 

324. Storage of Perishable Fruit at Freezing 374. 

Temperatures. 

325. Rice Irrigation Measurements and Ex- 

periments in Sacramento Valley, 375. 

1914-1919. 
328. Prune Growing in California. 376. 

331. Phylloxera-Resistant Stocks. 

334. Preliminary Volume Tables for Second- 377. 

Growth Redwood. 379. 

335. Cocoanut Meal as a Feed for Dairy 380. 

Cows and Other Livestock. 

339. The Relative Cost of Making Logs from 381. 

Small and Large Timber. 

340. Control of the Pocket Gopher in Cali- 382. 

fornia. 

343. Cheese Pests and Their Control. 383. 

344. Cold Storage as an Aid to the Market- 

ing of Plums. 384. 

346. Almond Pollination. 

347. The Control of Red Spiders in Decidu- 

ous Orchards. 385. 

348. Pruning Young Olive Trees. 386. 

349. A Study of Sidedraft and Tractor 

Hitches. 387. 

350. Agriculture in Cut-over Redwood Lands. 388. 

352. Further Experiments in Plum Pollina- 

tion. 389. 

353. Bovine Infectious Abortion. 390. 

354. Results of Rice Experiments in 1922. 



A Self-mixing Dusting Machine for 
Applying Dry Insecticides and 
Fungicides. 

Black Measles, Water Berries, and 
Related Vine Troubles. 

Fruit Beverage Investigations. 

Preliminary Yield Tables for Second 
Growth Redwood. 

Dust and the Tractor Engine. 

The Pruning of Citrus Trees in Cali- 
fornia. 

Fungicidal Dusts for the Control of 
Bunt. 

Avocado Culture in California. 

Turkish Tobacco Culture, Curing and 
Marketing. 

Methods of Harvesting and Irrigation 
in Relation to Mouldy Walnuts. 

Bacterial Decomposition of Olives dur- 
ing Pickling. 

Comparison of Woods for Butter Boxes. 

Browning of Yellow Newtown Apples. 

The Relative Cost of Yarding Small 
and Large Timber. 

The Cost of Producing Market Milk and 
Butterfat on 246 California Dairies. 

Pear Pollination. 

A Survey of Orchard Practices in the 
Citrus Industry of Southern Cali- 
fornia. 

Results of Rice Experiments at Cor- 
tena, 1923. 

Sun-Drying and Dehydration of Wal- 
nuts. 

The Cold Storage of Pears. 

Walnut Culture in California. 

Growth of Eucalyptus in California 
Plantations. 

Growing and Handling Asparagus 
Crowns. 

Pumping for Drainage in the San 
Joaguin Valley, California. 

Monilia Blossom Blight (Brown Rot) 
of Apricot. 

A Study of the Relative Values of Cer- 
tain Succulent Feeds and Alfalfa Meal 
as Sourses of Vitamin A for Poultry. 

Pollination of the Sweet Cherry. 

Pruning Bearing Deciduous Fruit 
Trees. 

Fig Smut. 

The Principles and Practice of Sun- 
drying Fruit. 

Berseem or Egyptian Clover. 

Harvesting and Packing Grapes in 
California. 



CIRCULARS 



No. No. 

87. Alfalfa. 157. 

113. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture. 160. 

117. The Selection and Cost of a Small 164. 

Pumping Plant. 165. 
127. House Fumigation. 

129. The Control of Citrus Insects. 166. 

136. Melilotus indica as a Green-Manure 167. 

Crop for California. 170. 
144. Oidium or Powdery Mildew of the Vine. 

151. Feeding and Management of Hogs. 173. 

152. Some Observations on the Bulk Hand- 

ling of Grain in California. 178. 

154. Irrigation Practice in Growing Small 179. 

Fruit in California. 

155. Bovine Tuberculosis. 184. 



Control of the Pear Scab. 
Lettuce Growing in California. 
Small Fruit Culture in California. 
Fundamentals of Sugar Beet Culture 

under California Conditions. 
The County Farm Bureau. 
Feeding Stuffs of Minor Importance. 
Fertilizing California Soils for the 1918 

Crop. 
The Construction of the Wood-Hoop 

Silo. 
The Packing of Apples in California. 
Factors of Importance in Producing 

Milk of Low Bacterial Count. 
A Flock of Sheep on the Farm. 



CIRCULARS — (Continued) 



No. 
190. 
199. 
202. 

203. 
209. 
210. 
212. 
214. 

215. 
217. 

220. 
228. 
230. 

231. 
232. 

233. 
234. 

235. 

236. 



237. 

238. 
239. 

240. 

241. 

242. 
243. 

244. 
245. 
247. 
248. 

249. 
250. 

251. 



252. 
253. 



Agriculture Clubs in California. 

Onion Growing in California. 

County Organizations for Rural Fire 

Control. 
Peat as a Manure Substitute. 
The Function of the Farm Bureau. 
Suggestions to the Settler in California. 
Salvaging Rain-Damaged Prunes. 
Seed Treatment for the Prevention of 

Cereal Smuts. 
Feeding Dairy Cows in California. 
Methods for Marketing Vegetables in 

California. 
Unfermented Fruit Juices. 
Vineyard Irrigation in Arid Climates. 
Testing Milk, Cream, and Skim Milk 

for Butterfat. 
The Home Vineyard. 
Harvesting and Handling California 

Cherries for Eastern Shipment. 
Artificial Incubation. 
Winter Injury to Young Walnut Trees 

during 1921-22. 
Soil Analysis and Soil and Plant Inter- 
relations. 

The Common Hawks and Owls of Cali- 
fornia from the Standpoint of the 

Rancher. 
Directions for the Tanning and Dress- 

of Furs. 
The Apricot in California. 
Harvesting and Handling Apricots and 

Plums for Eastern Shipment. 
Harvesting and Handling Pears for 

Eastern Shipment. 
Harvesting and Handling Peaches for 

Eastern Shipment. 
Poultry Feeding. 
Marmalade Juice and Jelly Juice from 

Citrus Fruits. 
Central Wire Bracing for Fruit Trees. 
Vine Pruning Systems. 
Colonization and Rural Development. 
Some Common Errors in Vine Pruning 

and Their Remedies. 
Replacing Missing Vines. 
Measurement of Irrigation Water on 

the Farm. 
Recommendations Concerning the Com- 
mon Diseases and Parasites of 

Poultry in California. 
Supports for Vines. 
Vineyard Plans. 



No. 

254. 

255. 

256. 
257. 
258. 
259. 
260. 

261. 
262. 
263. 
264. 

265. 
266. 

267. 

268. 

269. 
270. 
271. 
272. 

273. 

274. 

275. 

276. 

277. 

278. 
279. 
281. 



282. 

283. 
284. 
289 
290. 
291. 

292 
293. 
294. 



The Use of Artificial Light to Increase 
Winter Egg Production. 

Leguminous Plants as Organic Fertil- 
izer in California Agriculture. 

The Control of Wild Morning Glory. 

The Small-Seeded Horse Bean. 

Thinning Deciduous Fruits. 

Pear By-products. 

A Selected List of References Relating 
to Irrigation in California. 

Sewing Grain Sacks. 

Cabbage Growing in California. 

Tomato Production in California. 

Preliminary Essentials to Bovine Tuber- 
culosis Control. 

Plant Disease and Pest Control. 

Analyzing the Citrus Orchard by Means 
of Simple Tree Records. 

The Tendency of Tractors to Rise in 
Front; Causes and Remedies. 

Inexpensive Lavor-saving Poultry Ap- 
pliances. 

An Orchard Brush Burner. 

A Farm Septic Tank. 

Brooding Chicks Artificially. 

California Farm Tenancy and Methods 
of Leasing. 

Saving the Gophered Citrus Tree. 

Fusarium Wilt of Tomato and its Con- 
trol by Means of Resistant Varieties. 

Marketable California Decorative 
Greens. 

Home Canning. 

Head, Cane, and Cordon Pruning of 
Vines. 

Olive Pickling in Mediterranean Coun- 
tries. 

The Preparation and Refining of Olive 
Oil in Southern Europe. 

The Results of a Survey to Determine 
the Cost of Producing Beef in Cali- 
fornia. 

Prevention of Insect Attack on Stored 
Grain. 

Fertilizing Citrus Trees in California. 

The Almond in California. 

Oak Fungus in Orchard Trees. 

The Tangier Pea. 

Blackhead and Other Causes of Loss 
of Turkeys in California. 

Alkali Soils. 

The Basis of Grape Standardization. 

Propagation of Deciduous Fruits. 



The publications listed above may be had by addressing 

College of Agriculture, 

University of California, 

Berkeley, California. 



20mi-9,'25